Rates and Ratios: Making Sense of GIMs, OARs, and DCF


This seminar will provide a conceptual framework for thinking about key relationships among models, ranging from gross income multipliers to discounted cash flow models. Little focus has been placed on how these models relate to each other. These relationships have important implications for how differences in these rates and multipliers are interpreted and, in turn, for selecting and using data from comparable sales. Using a case study that follows logical progression from GIMs to DCF models, you’ll analyze specific relationships (i.e., between going-in verses going-out capitalization rates and between before-and after-tax rates). You will gain a comprehensive overview of the broad range of relationships among key multipliers and rates.

Sponsor Date Location Delivery Format Check
State Approvals
Appraisal Institute On Demand Online  Check Register

Program State Approval & Hours

Some AI educational programs may not be approved in every state and every delivery format. To see a list of all state approvals across all formats for this course, please use the link below.

View all approvals for this course

Who should Enroll

General real property appraisers


  • Produce reports that are more consistent and defensible.
  • Identify differences in the levels of the various rates and ratios.
  • Recognize how relationships between rates affect your selection and interpretation of data from comparable sales.




No Exam



Appraisal Institute CE Points

Attend: 75 AI Points

Class Time

7 hours


Yes. Participants must complete mandatory assignments in this program. Please plan your time accordingly and allow up to 5 days for the instructor to review your assignments. The instructor may ask for a re-submission of incomplete assignments. You may advance through the program while you are waiting for your instructor to review your work. You may also contact the instructor to request expedited review.

Program Overview

Required and/or Recommended Equipment

System Requirements

Additional Information

Online Course Access
Go to www.appraisalinstitute.org and log in with the username and password you used when you registered. Click on the red “My Account” button if you are not automatically taken to your account page.
1. Click "Education and Events" on the right navigation menu.
2. Find the course under the “Online Courses” heading and click the “Begin” button.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Once this button is clicked, your access length time (e.g. 90 days) will begin. Only click when you intend to start the course. If you are returning, once you have started the course, click the “Continue” button to continue.

Other Details
For information about how on demand online education programs work, registration and cancellation policies, and other details, see our On Demand Online Education Frequently Asked Questions.

Book Recommendations

None specified